The Closed Loop
An important aspect of industrial symbiosis is the concept of a closed loop value chain where manufacturers are able to capture additional value during production.
Consumption and production ecosystems become closed loops, eliminating the waste of outputs throughout the product lifecycle.
The idea of ‘waste’ disappears, to be replaced with ‘resources’ and ‘inputs’ that can be used to feed into other manufacturing processes.
Linear value chains are how products have traditionally been manufactured, and generate waste at each stage. According to the World Economic Forum, closed loop value chains are the way manufacturing will be redefined, focused on value creation rather than material throughput.